Monday, February 20, 2017

Basic Chemical Principles: Thermochemistry

1 The Nature of Energy and Types of Energy
2 Energy Changes in Chemical Reactions
3 Introduction to Thermodynamics
4 Enthalpy of Chemical Reactions
5 Calorimetry
6 Standard Enthalpy of Formation and Reaction
7 Heat of Solution and Dilution

A Look Ahead

  • We begin by studying the nature and different types of energy, which, in principle, are interconvertible. (1) 
  • Next, we build up our vocabulary in learning thermochemistry, which is the study of heat change in chemical reactions. We see that the vast majority of reactions are either endothermic (absorbing heat) or exothermic (releasing heat). (2) 
  • We learn that thermochemistry is part of a broader subject called the first law of thermodynamics, which is based on the law of conservation of energy. We see that the change in internal energy can be expressed in terms of the changes in heat and work done of a system. (3) 
  • We then become acquainted with a new term for energy, called enthalpy, whose change applies to processes carried out under constant-pressure conditions. (4) 
  • We learn ways to measure the heats of reaction or calorimetry, and the meaning of specific heat and heat capacity, quantities used in experimental work. (5) 
  • Knowing the standard enthalpies of formation of reactants and products enables us to calculate the enthalpy of a reaction. We will discuss ways to determine these quantities either by the direct method from the elements or by the indirect method, which is based on Hess’s law of heat summation. (6) 
  • Finally, we will study the heat changes when a solute dissolves in a solvent (heat of solution) and when a solution is diluted (heat of dilution). (7)
Every chemical reaction obeys two fundamental laws: the law of conservation of mass and the law of conservation of energy. We discussed the mass relationship between reactants and products in Chapter "Mass relationships in chemical reactions"; here we will look at the energy changes that accompany chemical reactions.

1. The Nature of Energy and Types of Energy
“Energy” is a much-used term that represents a rather abstract concept. For instance, when we feel tired, we might say we haven’t any energy; and we read about the need to find alternatives to nonrenewable energy sources. Unlike matter, energy is known and recognized by its effects. It cannot be seen, touched, smelled, or weighed.

Energy is usually defined as the capacity to do work. In Chapter 5 we defined work as “force 3 distance,” but we will soon see that there are other kinds of work. All forms of energy are capable of doing work (that is, of exerting a force over a distance), but not all of them are equally relevant to chemistry. The energy contained in tidal waves, for example, can be harnessed to perform useful work, but the relationship between tidal waves and chemistry is minimal. Chemists define work as directed energy change resulting from a process. Kinetic energy—the energy produced by a moving object—is one form of energy that is of particular interest to chemists. Others include radiant energy, thermal energy, chemical energy, and potential energy.

Radiant energy, or solar energy, comes from the sun and is Earth’s primary energy source. Solar energy heats the atmosphere and Earth’s surface, stimulates the growth of vegetation through the process known as photosynthesis, and influences global climate patterns.

Thermal energy is the energy associated with the random motion of atoms and molecules. In general, thermal energy can be calculated from temperature measurements. The more vigorous the motion of the atoms and molecules in a sample of matter, the hotter the sample is and the greater its thermal energy. However, we need to distinguish carefully between thermal energy and temperature. A cup of coffee at 70°C has a higher temperature than a bathtub filled with warm water at 40°C, but much more thermal energy is stored in the bathtub water because it has a much larger volume and greater mass than the coffee and therefore more water molecules and more molecular motion.

Chemical energy is stored within the structural units of chemical substances; its quantity is determined by the type and arrangement of constituent atoms. When substances participate in chemical reactions, chemical energy is released, stored, or converted to other forms of energy.

Potential energy is energy available by virtue of an object’s position. For instance, because of its altitude, a rock at the top of a cliff has more potential energy and will make a bigger splash if it falls into the water below than a similar rock located partway down the cliff. Chemical energy can be considered a form of potential energy because it is associated with the relative positions and arrangements of atoms within a given substance.

All forms of energy can be converted (at least in principle) from one form to another. We feel warm when we stand in sunlight because radiant energy is converted to thermal energy on our skin. When we exercise, chemical energy stored in our bodies is used to produce kinetic energy. When a ball starts to roll downhill, its potential energy is converted to kinetic energy. You can undoubtedly think of many other examples. Although energy can assume many different forms that are interconvertible, scientists have concluded that energy can be neither destroyed nor created. When one form of energy disappears, some other form of energy (of equal magnitude) must appear, and vice versa. This principle is summarized by the law of conservation of energy: the total quantity of energy in the universe is assumed constant.

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