Advanced Structural Inorganic Chemistry


INTERNATIONAL UNION OF CRYSTALLOGRAPHY
TEXTS ON CRYSTALLOGRAPHY
IUCr BOOK SERIES COMMITTEE
E. N. Baker, New Zealand
J. Bernstein, Israel
G. R. Desiraju, India
A. M. Glazer, UK
J. R. Helliwell, UK
P. Paufler, Germany
H. Schenk (Chairman), The Netherlands
IUCr Monographs on Crystallography
1 Accurate molecular structures
A. Domenicano and I. Hargittai, editors
2 P. P. Ewald and his dynamical theory of X-ray diffraction
D.W. J. Cruickshank, H. J. Juretschke, and J. Kato, editors
3 Electron diffraction techniques, Volume 1
J. M. Cowley, editor
4 Electron diffraction techniques Volume 2
J. M. Cowley, editor
5 The Rietveld method
R. A. Young, editor
6 Introduction to crystallographic statistics
U. Shmueli and G. H.Weiss
7 Crystallographic instrumentation
L. A. Aslanov, G. V. Fetisov, and G. A. K. Howard
8 Direct phasing in crystallography
C. Giacovazzo
9 The weak hydrogen bond
G. R. Desiraju and T. Steiner
10 Defect and microstructure analysis by diffraction
R. L. Snyder, J. Fiala, and H. J. Bunge
11 Dynamical theory of X-ray diffraction
A. Authier
12 The chemical bond in inorganic chemistry
I. D. Brown
13 Structure determination from powder diffraction data
W. I. F David, K. Shankland, L. B. McCusker,
and Ch. Baerlocher, editors
14 Polymorphism in molecular crystals
J. Bernstein
15 Crystallography of modular materials
G. Ferraris, E. Makovicky, and S. Merlino
16 Diffuse x-ray scattering and models of disorder
T. R.Welberry
17 Crystallography of the polymethylene chain: an inquiry into the
structure of waxes
D. L. Dorset
18 Crystalline molecular complexes and compounds: structure and
principles
F. H. Herbstein
19 Molecular aggregation: structure analysis and molecular simulation
of crystals and liquids
A. Gavezzotti
20 Aperiodic crystals: from modulated phases to quasicrystals
T. Janssen, G. Chapuis, and M. de Boissieu
21 Incommensurate crystallography
S. van Smaalen
IUCr Texts on Crystallography
1 The solid state
A. Guinier and R. Julien
4 X-ray charge densities and chemical bonding
P. Coppens
5 The basics of crystallography and diffraction, second edition
C. Hammond
6 Crystal structure analysis: principles and practice
W. Clegg, editor
7 Fundamental of crystallography, second edition
C. Giacovazza, editor
8 Crystal structure refinement: a crystallographer’s guide to SHELXL
P. Müller, editor
9 Theories and techniques of crystal structure determination
U. Shmueli
10 Advanced structural inorganic chemistry
W.-K. Li, G.-D. Zhou, and T.C.W. Mak

Advanced Structural
Inorganic Chemistry
WAI-KEE LI
The Chinese University of Hong Kong
GONG-DU ZHOU
Peking University
THOMAS CHUNGWAI MAK
The Chinese University of Hong Kong

3
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Langkah- langkah Metode Ilmiah

Guru atau pengajar adalah pengambil keputusan dalam kelas. Keputusan yang perlu diambil guru adalah merencanakan pengalaman belajar, menentukan metode mengajar, menentukan sistem penilaian, dan banyak lagi yang dihadapi guru setiap hari yang perlu keputusan.

Guru adalah ahli bagi siswa dikelasnya. Ahli yang mempunyai pengetahuan dan keterampilan dalam mengambil berbagai keputusan yang valid dan cara melakukannya. Dalam mengambil keputusan guru dapat melakukannya berdasarkan pengalaman, otoritas dan tradisi, tetapi yang memberi sumbangan terbesar adalah hasil penelitian ilmiah, karena telah diuji validitasnya menggunakan metode ilmiah.

Keputusan yan diambil dari serangkaian kegiatan penelitian dengan menerapkan metode ilmiah telah memberi perubahan besar dalam pendidikan. Para guru dapat memanfaatkan berbagai sumber hasil penelitian ilmiah pendidikan untuk mendapatkan informasi dan saran dalam mengambil keputusan.

Sumber pengetahuan dalam mengambil keputusan dapat dikelompokkan menjadi:

1. Pengalaman
Pengalaman adalah sumber pengetahuan yang telah banyak diketahui dan digunakan oleh orang pada umumnya. Bahkan semua manusia belajar dari pengalaman. Seorang anak kecil yang karena tanpa pengetahuan memegang api, berdasarkan pengalaman tersebut ia memperoleh pengetahuan bahwa api itu panas.
Seorang guru setiap hari memperoleh banyak pengetahuan dari pengalaman mengajar di kelasnya setiap hari. Bahkan mungkin telah menemukan banyak metode mengajar yang ia temukan tanpa ia sadari, bahwa dirinya adalah seorang penemu atau seorang ahli di kelasnya.

2. Otoritas atau wewenang
Otoritas atau wewenang adalah sumber pengetahuan yang tidak dapat diperoleh dari pengalaman pribadi. Misalnya seorang siswa akan membuka kamus untuk mencari arti kata yang asing baginya. Seorang pasien akan bertanya kepada dokter tentang penyakitnya. Jenis pengetahuan ini diperoleh dari orang lain yang memiliki pengalaman atau orang yang dianggap ahli pada bidangnya. Guru dapat memperoleh dan memanfaatkan pengetahuan ini dari para ahli pendidikan.

3. Cara berpikir deduktif
Cara berpikir deduktif adalah cara berpikir yang dirumuskan sebagai suatu proses berpikir yang bertolak dari pernyataan yang bersifat umum ke pernyataan yang bersifat khusus dengan memakai kaidah logika tertentu. Logika yang digunakan adalah suatu sistem penyusunan fakta yang telah diketahui untuk membuat kesimpulan. Cara ini dilakukan menggunakan serangkaian pernyataan yang disebut silogisme yang terdiri dari:
1) pokok pikiran utama (premis mayor)
2) pokok pikiran kedua (premis minor)
3) kesimpulan
Contoh silogisme:
1) Semua larutan yang memiliki pH < 7 adalah larutan asam.
2) Larutan HCl encer memiliki pH < 7.
3) Larutan HCl encer adalah larutan asam.
Jika premisnya benar, maka kesimpulannya pasti benar.

4) Cara berpikir induktif
Kesimpulan yang dihasilkan dari cara berpikir deduktif hanya benar jika premisnya benar. Namun, bagaimana mengetahui bahwa premis itu pasti benar dan valid.
Misal contoh:
1) Semua siswa yang diajar dengan metode A mendapat nilai > 80.
2) Kelas X diajar dengan metode A.
3) Semua siswa kelas X mendapat nilai > 80.
Bisa saja ini benar untuk kesimpulan kelas X, namun belum tentu untuk kelas Y dan Kelas Z. Jadi kesimpulan ini hanya benar pada kondisi tertentu, dan belum dapat digeneralkan.
Francis Bacon adalah orang yang mengusulkan ide bahwa untuk mencari kebenaran atau pengetahuan seseorang harus mengamati alam secara langsung, mengumpulkan fakta-fakta, dan merumuskan generalisasi dari hasil pengamatan tersebut.
Contoh cara berpikir induktif:
Semua kelas yang diajar dengan metode A mendapat nilai rata-rata > 80.
Oleh karena itu, semua siswa yang diajar dengan metode A mendapat nilai > 80.
Perhatikan bahwa cara berpikir deduktif mengamati contoh-contoh atau seluruh kelas, baru dibuat generalisasi untuk seluruh siswa.

5) Metode Ilmiah atau Pendekatan Saintifik atau Pendekatan Ilmiah
Charles Darwin dianggap sebagai orang pertama yang menerapkan metode ilmiah dalam mencari pengetahuan dan kebenarannya. Darwin melakukan pengamatan makhluk hidup dan berharap dapat membuat generalisasi tentang evolusi makhluk hidup. Penggabungan cara berpikir induktif-deduktif telah menjadi metode baru yang disebut metode ilmiah. Pada metode ilmiah hasil pengamatan pada fakta-fakta dirumuskan menjadi kesimpulan sementara atau disebut hipotesis. Kesimpulan sementara atau hipotesis ini harus diuji kebenarannya dan validitasnya sebelum digeneralisasi.
Metode ilmiah adalah cara berpikir yang dideskripsikan sebagai proses yang dalam hal ini peneliti secara induktif bertolak dari pengamatannya menuju hipotesis. Oleh karena itu, pada metode ilmiah umumnya peneliti memikirkan apa yang akan terjadi jika hipotesis benar, kemudian melakukan pengamatan yang lebih sistematis untuk menerima atau menolak hipotesis. Metode ilmiah adalah suatu proses penelitian yang sistematis yang terdiri atas variabel-variabel yang saling bergantung atau interdependen variabel. Metode ilmiah pada umumnya meliputi langkah-langkah metode ilmiah berikut:

Langkah 1 Metode ilmiah: Perumusan Masalah
Penelitian ilmiah dimulai dengan menemukan masalah yang memerlukan pemecahan atau penyelesaian atau solusi atas masalah. Masalah harus dapat dirumuskan sehingga dapat dijawab dengan pengamatan dan pengukuran. Masalah yang menyangkut pilihan dengan angka kuantitatif tidak dapat dijawab dengan pengamatan fakta saja. Misal, apakah siswa yang diajar dengan metode A akan memperoleh nilai lebih tinggi daripada siswa yang diajar dengan metode B?. Masalah ini dapat dijawab dengan menerapkan metode ilmiah dalam serangkaian penelitian.

Langkah 2 Metode ilmiah: Membuat hipotesis
Hipotesis adalah penjelasan atau jawaban sementara atas rumusan masalah. Peneliti harus memiliki cukup informasi dengan membaca berbagai sumber untuk merumuskan masalah atau membuat hipotesis.

Langkah 3 Metode ilmiah: Pengumpulan Data
Tahap pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan cara pengamatan dan pengukuran untuk memperoleh data yang ada hubungannya dengan masalah yang diteliti atau untuk menjawab rumusan masalah yang diteliti melalui pengamatan, tes dan eksperimen.

Langkah 4 Metode ilmiah: Analisis Data
Jika data yang diperlukan untuk menjawab masalah sudah terkumpul, maka hasil pengamatan dan pengukuran dianalisis dengan teknik analisis data yang tepat untuk memberikan bukti-bukti empiris yang mendukung hipotesis ditolak atau diterima.

Langkah 5 Metode ilmiah: Penarikan kesimpulan
Berdasarkan hasil analisis data dapat ditarik kesimpulan apakah hipotesis diterima atau ditolak. Kesimpulan yang diambil didukung dengan bukti-bukti empiris.

Semoga bermanfaat bagi yang mau menerapkan langkah-langkah metode ilmiah di atas.
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Structure Inorganic Chemistry


Structural
Inorganic
Chemistry

A.F. WELLS
CLARENDON

4th Edition

CLARENDON PRESS - OXFORD
Oxford University Press
Ely House, London W1
1975

Preface
This book has been almosl entirely rewritten, but its purpose and general organization remain the same las those of previous editions. The Introduction to the first (1945) edition included dhe following paragraph: 'The reasons for writing this book were, firstly, the conviqtion that the structural side of inorganic chemistry cannot be put on a sound basls until the knowledge gained from the study of the solid state has been incorporated into chemistry as an integral part of that subject, and secondly, the equally strolng conviction that it is unsatisfactory merely to add information about the structures of solids to the descriptions of the elements and compounds as usually presented in a systematic treatment of inorganic chemistry.' Now, after a period of thirty years during which considerable advances have been made in solid state chemistry, it is still true to say that the structures and properties of solids receive very little atte~ntion in most treatments of inorganic chemistry, and this in spite of the fact that most elements and most inorganic compounds are solids at ordinary temperaturw. This state of affairs would seem to be sufficient justification for the appearance of yet another edition of this book. Since the results of structurkl studies of crystals are described in crystallographic language the first requirement is that these results be made available in a form intelligible to chemists. It was this challenge that first attracted the author, and it is hoped that this book will continue to provide teachers of chemistry with facts and ideas which can be incorporated into their teaching. However, while any addition of structural information to the donventional teaching of inorganic chemistry is to be welcomed the real need is a radical change of outlook and the recognition that not only is the structure of a substance in all states of aggregation an essential part of its full description (or characterization) but also that the structures and properties of solids form an integral part, pedhaps the major part, of the subject. The general plan of the boqk is as follows. Part I deals with a number of general topics and is intended as an introduction to the more detailed Part 11, which forms the larger part of the book. In Part I1 the structural chemistry of the elements is described systematically, and the arrangement of material is based on the groups of the Periodic Table. The advanlces made during the past decade have necessitated considerable changes in these latter chapters, but the major structural changes have been made in the content of Part I. Since a concise treatment of certain geometrical and topological topics is not readily available elsewhere mode space has been devoted to these than in previous editions at the expense of subjects such as the experimental methods of structural chemistry, which at best can receive only a sketchy treatment in a volume such as this. Many students find difficulty in appreciating the three-dimensional geometry of crystal structures from two-dimensional illustrations (even stereoscopic photographs). In order to acquire some facility in visualising the three-dimensional arrangements of atoms in crystals some acquaintance is necessary with symmetry, repeating patterns, sphere-packings, and related topics. Some of this material could be, and sometimes is, introduced into teaching at an early age. However, there is a tendency in some quarters to regard solid geometry as old-fashioned and to replace it in school curricula by more fashionable aspects of mathematics. This adds to the difficulties of those teachers of chemistry who wish to modernize their teaching by including information about the structures of solids. Unless the student has an adequate grounding in the topics noted above little is gained by adding diagrams of unit cells of crystal structures to conventional chemistry texts. The educational value of building models representing the arrangements of atoms in crystals cannot be over-emphasized; and by this we mean that the student actually assembles the model and does not simply look at a ready-made model, however much more elegant the latter may be. Some very tentative suggestions for model building have been offered in the author's Models in Structural Inorganic Chemistry, to which the abbreviation MSIC in the present volume refers. References. The present volume has never been intended as a reference work, though it may serve as a useful starting-point when information is required on a particular topic. As an essential part of the educational process the advanced student should be encouraged to adopt a critical attitude towards the written word (including the present text); he must learn where to find the original literature and to begin to form his own judgment of the validity of conclusions drawn from experimental data. It is becoming increasingly difficult to locate the original source of a particular item of information, and for this reason numerous references to the scientific literature are included in the systematic part of this book. These generally refer to the latest work, in which references to earlier work are usually included. To save space (and expense) the names of scientific journals have been abbreviated to the forms listed on pp. mi-xxiii. Indexes. There are two indexes. The arrangement of entries in the formula index is not entirely systematic for there is no wholly satisfactory way of indexing inorganic compounds which retains chemically acceptable groupings of atoms. The formulae have been arranged so as to emphasize the feature most likely to be of interest to the chemist. The subject index is largely restricted to names of minerals and organic compounds and to topics which are not readily located in the list of contents. Acknowledgments. During the writing of this book, which of necessity owes much to the work and ideas of other workers in this and related fields, I have had the benefit of helpful discussions with a number of colleagues, of whom I would particularly mention Dr. B. C. Chamberland. I wish to thank Dr. B. G. Bagley and the editor of Nature (London) for permission to use Fig. 4.3, Dr. H. T. Evans and John Wiley and Sons for Figs Sc, 7, 10, 11, and 12b in Chapter 11, and Drs. G. T. Kokotailo and W. M. Meier for Fig. 23.27. It gives me great pleasure to acknowledge the debt that I owe to my wife for her support and encouragement over a period of many years.
A. F. Wells
Department of Chemhtry,
University of Connecticut,
Storrs, Connecticut,
U.S.A.
1974
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Kimia dasar McMurry Fay


Life has changed more in the past two centuries than in all the previously recorded span of human
history. The earth’s population has increased more than fivefold since 1800, and life expectancy has nearly doubled because of our ability to synthesize medicines, control diseases, and increase crop yields. Methods of transportation have changed from horses and buggies to automobiles and airplanes because of our ability to harness the energy in petroleum. Many goods are now made of polymers and ceramics instead of wood and metal because of our ability to manufacture materials with properties unlike any found in nature. In one way or another, all these changes involve chemistry, the study of the composition, properties, and transformations of matter. Chemistry is deeply involved in both the changes that take place in nature and the profound social changes of the past two centuries. In addition, chemistry is central to the current revolution in molecular biology that is now exploring the details of how life is genetically controlled. No educated person today can understand the modern world without a basic knowledge of chemistry.
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Prinsip Kimia Modern


Principles of Modern Chemistry

Principles of

Modern Chemistry

DAVID W. OXTOBY

Pomona College

H . P. G I L L I S

University of California–Los Angeles

ALAN CAMPION

The University of Texas at Austin

Images of orbitals in Chapters 4, 5, 6 and 8 contributed by

HATEM H. HELAL

California Institute of Technology

K E L LY P. G A I T H E R

The University of Texas at Austin

SIXTH EDITION

Printed in the United States of America

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 11 10 09 08 07

ExamView® and ExamView Pro® are registered trademarks

of FSCreations, Inc. Windows is a registered trademark of the

Microsoft Corporation used herein under license. Macintosh

and Power Macintosh are registered trademarks of Apple

Computer, Inc. Used herein under license.

© 2008 Thomson Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Thomson

Learning WebTutorTM is a trademark of Thomson Learning,

Inc.

Library of Congress Control Number 2006941020

Student Edition:

ISBN-13: 978-0-534-49366-0

ISBN-10: 0-534-49366-1

Preface
When the first edition of Principles of Modern Chemistry appeared in 1986, the standard sequence of topics in honors and high-level mainstream general chem- istry courses began with macroscopic descriptions of chemical phenomena and proceeded to interpret these in terms of molecular structure. This traditional “macro-to-micro” approach has shifted in recent years, and today the central top- ics in these courses are chemical bonding and molecular structure. The relation of molecular structure to function and properties requires the introduction of molec- ular structure early in the course and the use of structural arguments in presenting the remaining topics.
In preparing the sixth edition, we have revised the textbook extensively to meet these present-day needs. In particular, we believe that the most logical sequence of topics begins with the physical properties and structure of atoms; is followed by structure, bonding, and properties of molecules; proceeds to describe macroscopic collections of atoms and molecules; continues with a discussion of chemical prop- erties and reactions under equilibrium conditions; and finishes with dynamics and kinetics.

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Molecular Orbital Theory


Registered Works Database (Author Search)

1. Registration Number: RE-642-366

Title: Molecular orbital theory; an introductory lecture note and reprint

volume. By acCarl J. Ballhausen and Harry B. Gray.

Claimant: Carl J. Ballhausen (A)

Effective Registration Date: 1 Nov93

Original Registration Date: 7Dec64;

Original Registration Number: A357882.

Original Class: A

Permission granted for scanning and deposition in Caltech CODA by telephone call from Carl J.

Ballhausen, June 1, 2006 per Dana L. Roth.

FRONTIERS IN CHEMISTRY

Ronald Breslow and Martin Karplus, Editors

Columbia University

CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE THEORY

OF CHEMICAL KINETICS

T. A. Bak

MOLECULAR ORBITAL THEORY

C. J. Ballhausen K0benhavns Universitet

H. B. Gray Columbia University

THERMODYNAMICS OF SMALL SYSTEMS :

Parts I and II

T. L. Hill University of Oregon

LECTURES ON QUANTUM THEORY OF

MOLECULAR ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE

R. G. Parr The Johns Hopkins University

THE BIOSYNTHESIS OF STEROIDS, TERPENES,

AND ACETOGENINS

J. H. Richards California Institute of Technology

J. B. Hendrickson Brandeis University

OXIDATION MECHANISMS : Applications to Organic

Chemistry

R. Stewart University of British Columbia

COMPUTER PROGRAMMING

FOR ORGANIC CHEMISTS

K. J. Wiberg Yale University

MOLECULAR ORBITAL

THEORY

An Introductory Lecture Note and Reprint Volume

C. J. BALEHAUSEN

i.1 F

Kmbenhavns Universitet

and

HARRY B. GRAY

Columbia University

W. A. BENJAMIN, INC. 1965

New York Amsterdam

Preface
These notes are based on lectures on molecular orbital theory that we have presented at the University of Copenhagen and Columbia University. They were designed primarily for advanced-undergraduate and first-year graduate students as an introduction to molecular orbital theory. It is apparent that the molecular orbital theory is a very useful method of classifying the ground and excited states of small molecules. The tran- sition metal complexes occupy a special place here, and the last chapter is devoted entirely to this subject. We believe that modern inorganic chem- ists should be acquainted with the methods of the theory, and that they will find approximate one-electron calculations as helpful as the organic chemists have found simple Hiickel calculations. For this reason, we have included a calculation of the permanganate ion in Chapter 8. On the other hand, we have not considered conjugated pi systems because they are excellently discussed in a number of books. Our intuitive approach in the use of symmetry methods is admittedly nonrigorous and therefore will be unsatisfactory to purists, but we believe this is the best way to introduce symmetry ideas to the majority of students. Once the student has learned how to use symmetry methods, it will be easier for him to appreciate more formal and rigorous treatments. Several reprints of papers on molecular orbital theory are included in the back of the book. The papers treat a substantial number of the impor- tant molecular geometries. The reader should be able to follow the discus- sions after reading through the lecture notes. We thank our colleagues in New York and Copenhagen for help with the manuscript. We gratefully acknowledge the help of Dr. Arlen Viste and Mr. Harold Basch in preparing Appendix 8-B. Finally, it is a plea- sure to acknowledge the expert assistance of Mrs. Diane Celeste in pre- paring the final manuscript.

Buku ini ditulis dengan memperhatikan metode ilmiah. Latihan soal dalam buku dapat digunakan untuk latihan soal un kimia untuk siswa SMA.

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